This past semester, I took a class with a professor who specializes in mercury in the environment. This exposed me to various research projects about mercury in the Long Island Sound, USA . I learned that there are variations in the natural abundance of mercury in the environment and that humans have increased this level via various industrial practices. Connecticut, where I attend college, is a prime area to study the cycling and effects of anthropomorphic mercury in the environment because of this area’s historical contribution to the hat-making industry. In the 1800s and early 1900s, liquid mercury was used to mat fur pelts that were manufactured into fashionable hats. Due to the neurological effects of mercury, the saying “Mad as a hatter” was born.
A large group of professors and students from Duke University Department of Public Health visited Villa Carmen Station this weekend. Their project in medical entomology and environmental toxicology examines gold mining in this part of Peru to see if there is a correlation between the environmental mercury concentration and the mercury concentration in residents’ blood, hair, nails, and food intake. Historically, mercury is a key component in gold mining. The global increase in the price of gold has resulted in a recent escalation of gold mining in this area, and possibly, an increase in the environmental mercury concentration. With these data, the Duke team will compare incidents of malaria (and other diseases) to see if mercury makes individuals more susceptible to infections. Their project is an example of how environmental mercury research is of interest to many different scientists from different disciplines around the world.
One of the clearest indicators of change in the environment from the Wayquecha cloud forest to the Villa Carmen rainforest is the abundance of fruit dotting the mass of green vegetation. Upon our arrival, we were guided down pathways lined with pineapple plants (imagine a ripe pineapple encircled by a fan of thick, large, green leaves). The garden, from which all the fruits and vegetables we eat at Villa Carmen come from, is full of papaya. Las trochas, or trails, are intermittently bordered with berries. Yesterday, we began training with various types of insect nets. During this session, Caroline pointed out a guava tree with many green fruit blooms. A little farther down the trail we finally spotted a ripe guava fruit begging to be picked. Having never picked a fruit of this size myself, I went for it! However, I immediately thought of those cartoons I watched as a child where the eager character bites into a fresh apple and meets an unwelcome worm, and I resisted my excitement to bite into the guava. Eventually I overcame my reluctance, took out my pocket knife, sliced up the guava, and dispersed it among the group members. It tasted incredibly fresh, slightly sweet, and had a relatively thick consistency. Needless to say, it was well worth the risk of a worm.
From Lima, to Wayqecha, to Villa Carmen, spots of bright color have caught my attention. Looking out my plane window from Lima to Cusco, bright blue vernal pools popped out from the muted tan Andean mountains. This same pattern of bright/muted contrasts was also apparent in the bright blue doors on the brown adobe homes that we passed en route to the Wayquecha Biological Field Station. Even during our hikes at Wayqecha, the forest exhibited numerous shades of green, accented by super-bright floras – light pink Protea flowers, red Bromeliad plants, and yellow, purple, or blue Orchids. These splashes of rich color seemed unreal. We even found a flower on our walks that perfectly matched my fuchsia Nike field shirt. These incredible colors reminded me of the woven alpaca goods we saw in the markets and the communities we passed through. Peruvian architecture and products use indigenous materials and also seem inspired by the natural aesthetics of their uniquely colored environment.
Alpaca wool blankets in Cusco
Bracelets of seeds, beads and shells, Lima market
Backstrap weaving with alpaca wool
It is now my tenth day in Peru. The rest of the group arrived after I’d been here, alone, for four days. We spent the first couple of days in Lima touring archeological sites and gaining an overview of Peru’s rich history and ancient cultures.
Of course, there was a bit of a snafu at the Lima airport with one of our colleague’s ticket, but thankfully, it was sorted out. I flew a different airline from the rest, since it was a bit cheaper and by the time I was able to purchase my ticket, it was outrageously priced with their airline. So, I arrived in Cusco a few minutes before them and was inundated by organizations trying to sell me everything from a taxi to a hotel to Macchu Picchu entrance tickets. My Spanish has been improving, so I felt fairly safe in communicating with the vendors that no, I did not need anything, I was waiting on my group to arrive. They seemed to get it, or I frightened them.
Wayqecha, our first field station, is in the Andean cloud forest. I may now live in Lawrence, KS, the coldest place on earth, but I still am no fan of cold. One night at Wayqecha was so cold I slept under 4 heavy wool blankets wearing my long underwear, sweatshirt, and an alpaca shawl I had purchased in Lima. The next day I was in shorts.
We discovered that the forests are constantly trying to reclaim trails (trochas) as things grow so fast. We had a little difficulty locating the trail that our professor had previously surveyed. A small building had been built in front of it, that will eventually allow ACA to charge admission to enter this trail to the canopy platform which is supposed to be breathtaking. The vista at Wayqecha is breathtaking, so I have my doubts as to how spectacular this other view must be.
Today, we learned how to select a site for a Malaise Trap, and setting it up for capturing insects in an unattended sampling period. Our location wasn’t ideal for the trap itself as we installed it on a steep slope but it was in an ideal cloud forest, which we wanted to survey. In a week we’ll see if we made the right decision.
Today we took a trail through the cloud forest at Wayqecha. I have never taken a class on plant diversity, so I was amazed by the diversity of plants here. I felt lucky to learn so much on a walk. First, we examined many different species of ferns. I learned that ferns have their reproductive organs (sori) on the underside of the leaf-like frond. As we kept walking down the trail we saw Selaginella, which are considered to be more primitive than ferns. My favorite plants are the Orchids. There are so many kinds here. Since it is winter now in the Amazon, only a few are in flower. Without the flowers, the main way you can tell if a plant is an orchid is by the pseudo-bulb at the base of the leaves. Orchids get their moisture out of the air, so they love humid places like cloud forest. I must think how to keep them in a pot, with bark instead of soil. Next, we found a wispy bromeliad. This one is an epiphyte, which creates a mat on the tree and builds up soil to get its nutrients, but it is not a parasite on the supporting tree. Near the end of the trail, my second favorite plant appeared. It is called Protea and it has pretty pink tube-like flowers. I found this plant particularly noteworthy because it is only found in South America and southern Africa, which shows evidence that a long time ago the two continents were attached, forming Pangaea. Wayqecha is one of the most beautiful places I have visited.
On our third day at Wayquecha Biological Station, we began our adventure walking along the main road in search for a “secret garden gate” that Professor Chaboo described. At first, we were unable to find the gate, until we realized that a clay and bamboo house inscribed with the words “Casa Interpretativa del Manu” now camouflages the path. We walked down the hidden trail and were immediately greeted with an assortment of leaf beetles and grasshoppers. Each one of us on the trip collected some sort of insect or two. After the brief scare of Paige scaling the side of a relatively steep drop off in search of her water bottle, we continued our way down the trail to find a site to set up our first insect trap. Past the “secret garden gate”, we were immersed in a landscape full of new and exciting flora. A bit farther down, we crossed a small, wooden bridge suspended above a waterfall. Then, we continued on an open trail that scaled the side of a mountain overlooking the spectacular cloud forest.
We finally came upon the perfect spot to set up the Malaise trap. This consists of netting that catches insects flying in two directions. A roof of the same material meets the wall of netting and takes advantage of the insect’s instinct to climb upwards. The insect is channeled into a container filled with ethanol. We began by tying the tops of the 6×6 foot net trap to trees with rope and then secured it into the ground with stakes. Meanwhile, Alex circulated around us, filming the entire process. The incline and moistness of the ground made the set up a bit tricky, but we eventually completed the process with success. Afterwards, we took 20 or so minutes to ourselves to explore the beautiful moss-covered rainforest and observe the many other traps set up by other researchers. I think it is safe to say that there is no better location or circumstance in which to learn a field method!
On our second day in Lima we went to several fascinating museums, spending most of the day at the Museum of National Anthropology and Archaeology and the Larco Museum. Our extremely knowledgeable and well-versed guide, Fernando Benaducci Otayza, particularly enjoyed explaining the gritty details of how two Incan warriors from competing communities would fight each other and the humiliating and brutal death the loser would suffer. Since I’m the only male in our group, he used me as the example for the defeated warrior throughout the day at each of these displays.
Both warriors wore extravagant outfits and began their fight with a warrior dance. What I found most surprising about their rules of engagement was that they wore helmets and if one fighter’s helmet was knocked off, that meant his opponent won. The loser was then stripped nude, tied up and taken into the winner’s village, displayed to his people before being killed and defaced in some extremely gnarly ways. As Fernando detailed this process to our group as if it was happening to me, they found it funny at first, until he got into how the losers were grotesquely murdered and their body parts mutilated for practical uses and/or touted as trophies.
The faces of Sarah and Haley immediately switched from laughing to shock and terror when Fernando gleefully talked about the loser being decapitated, his head being shrunk and put on a belt with other heads, the heart being cut out and either offered sacrificially or eaten, and more. After hearing about how the winner would remove the skin from the loser’s back and make a drum from it, we saw one of these drums, as well as the knives the warriors fought with, their armor, and even a couple of shrunken heads. These artifacts really grabbed my attention for their craftsmanship and the hardcore violence associated with them. I’ve been bewildered by shrunken heads since learning about them from Ripley’s Believe It or Not as a child, so I especially got a kick out of seeing the ones on display here.
Buenos noches desde Lima, Peru! I have been in Peru a few days, prior to the class arrival. It has already been adventure. My luggage was delayed two nights; I was pickpocketed; I got lost walking through Centro de Lima, and then found, grateful for the friendly Limeños. I have enjoyed seeing the beautiful brown faces and smiles and listening to the sing song pattern of their Spanish.
About five years ago, I was sitting in a long meditation with my Kundalini sangha when an image of myself meditating at Macchu Picchu began to dominate my experience. Since that first occurrence, I have been drawn to Peru. In January, I realized traveling to Peru might be attainable during a phone conversation with Dr. Chaboo. From that moment I began the long process of making vision a reality.
It was an extremely difficult journey to begin, since I was also coping with family illness. I nearly gave up, thinking it may be best for me to remain at home. In the end I boarded the first of three flights to arrive in Lima, alone and without my luggage or my Spanish-English dictionary. Always write down your hotel information and stash an extra pair of clothes and your toothbrush in your carry-on bag. This is what saved my sanity upon a less-than-perfect arrival and allowed me to be safely deposited at our hotel to begin this Peruvian adventure.
Peru, Here we come!
I’m finally in Peru, and I have just been reflecting on everything that has happened to get me to where I currently am.
I would see Caroline Chaboo in the hallways of the Entomology Lab, and she would exclaim, “Haley! You are going to Peru with me!” I always took that with grain of salt, for several reasons. What in the world would I do in Peru with a bunch of biology students? Shouldn’t I be getting an Industrial Design internship instead? How in the world would I pay for that kind of trip, anyways? However, all of these things I was worrying about completely disappeared with her help, along with the encouraging words from my Professor, Lance Rake. Dr. Chaboo recommended a type of project for me that would take advantage of the incredible traditional textiles found in Peru; we discussed several people I could contact to talk about Peruvian culture and the textiles, and she also mentored me while writing grants. So, it appeared that I was actually going to Peru.
Last week, starting Monday the 2nd, our study abroad group got together to review our itinerary, the goals, and the expectations.
On Tuesday, we sorted insects. Caroline dumped out a mass of mixed bugs soaked in ethanol into a white tray; she gave me a light, microscope, cylindrical containers, and forceps to start sorting. This was overwhelming, but quickly became fun. I was blown away by what I saw through the microscope. Yes, I have seen these close-ups in photographs on the internet. However, seeing it for yourself in person is a completely new experience, that opens up this tiny little world that is so much bigger than I previously thought.
On Wednesday, we visited the Spencer Art Museum, where we talked with curators, Stephen Goddard and Casey Mesick, about significant art pieces that connected with our Peru travels. Eduardo Kac is an artist who injected his own DNA into a Petunia plant to create the “Enigma,” which is represented in five photographs in the project “The Natural History of the Enigma.” We also saw prints from the original paintings of Isabella Kirkland, from her collected works “Taxa.” Taxa is a group of 6 paintings, each including a specific theme, such as species that are ascending in their natural habitat, species that are declining, species that are used for illegal trade, species that have become extinct, etc. These paintings depict nearly 400 species, and are incredibly detailed! Casey Mesick brought out a few Peruvian textiles, some directly from the Center of Traditional Textiles of Cusco. Most of these textiles were woven from a back-strap method, which is a very simple method of weaving. How incredible though, something so beautiful and complex made with such a simple process. The practice of weaving is very sacred, and takes advantage of Peru’s rich biodiversity, including materials, dyes, and patterns. These specific details really stuck out to me.
Thursday was a packing day. I did not feel prepared, I never felt absolutely ready, especially since I was leaving the country. However, you just need to “just do it,” if you want an adventure. Something I learned from a successful National Geographic photographer, Corey Richards, is that adventures are full of discomfort, but that discomfort is exactly what is so inspiring and what drives you to learn. So Peru, get me out of this comfort zone! Bring on the adventure!
(photos coming soon)
Shortly before leaving for Peru, the team visited the Spencer Museum of Art for a art and science discussion with Curators Steve Goddard — a 2011 Peru trip alum — and Casey Messick.